Gynecomastia is abnormal breast enlargement in males due to hormone imbalance, common in newborns, adolescent boys, older men, and obese men.It can be caused by abnormal hormone changes, alcohol and drugs, Klinefelter syndrome, metabolic dysfunction, or a natural decline in testosterone production. Gynecomastia affects 35% of men, with up to 70% of adolescent boys developing it. 75% resolve within two years without treatment, while treatment is warranted if the condition persists or causes embarrassment, pain, or tenderness. Gynecomastia is different from pseudodogynecomastia, which is common in men with obesity.


  1. Hormonal Imbalance: Gynecomastia results from estrogen-to-testosterone imbalance, impacting male breast tissue development during puberty.
  2. Medications: Understanding gynecomastia risks is crucial for patients and healthcare providers.
  3. Health Conditions: Gynecomastia may result from medical conditions.
  4. Natural Development: Adolescent boys experience pubertal gynecomastia due to hormonal changes.
  5. Substance Use: Recreational drug use linked to gynecomastia; understanding risks crucial.


  • Pain, particularly in adolescents
  • Swollen breast tissue
  • Breast tenderness
  • Nipple sensitivity with rubbing against clothes


  • cyst
  • abscess or furuncle
  • benign tumor such as lipoma or hamartoma
  • mastitis, which is inflammation of breast tissue
  • hematoma, a solid swelling of clotted blood
  • metastasis, a cancer that has spread from elsewhere in the body
  • fat necrosis or a lump resulting from damage to fatty breast tissue


  1. Observation and Lifestyle Changes: Mild gynecomastia caused by puberty or weight gain may require observation by healthcare providers. Often resolved with hormone stabilization or weight loss, adopting a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and a balanced diet can help manage excess weight-related gynecomastia.
  2. Medications: Medications for persistent gynecomastia due to hormonal imbalances or medical conditions vary in effectiveness.
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs): Tamoxifen and raloxifene block estrogen’s effects on breast tissue growth.
  • Aromatase Inhibitors: Anastrozole drugs reduce estrogen production, potentially treating gynecomastia caused by excess production.
  1. Surgical Intervention: Surgery is considered for persistent gynecomastia, psychological distress, or pronounced breast tissue, with two main options.
  • Liposuction: Liposuction removes excess fat from breasts, primarily for gynecomastia caused by fatty tissue accumulation.
  • Surgical Excision: Surgical excision removes glandular tissue and skin, suitable for breast tissue growth and gynecomastia caused by glandular proliferation.
  1. Psychological Support: Healthcare providers must address psychological impact of gynecomastia by offering counseling and support to address body image, self-esteem, and emotional distress.
  2. Treating Underlying Conditions: Treating underlying medical conditions like hormonal disorders or medications can alleviate gynecomastia symptoms and reduce breast tissue enlargement.



Gynecomastia is a complex condition affecting both physical and emotional aspects. Understanding its causes, symptoms, and treatment options helps manage and enhance health. Seeking professional medical advice is the first step towards a comprehensive solution.


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