Anal Fissure


Anal Fissure

Anal fissure is a common medical condition affecting the anal canal, the last part of the digestive tract. It causes discomfort and pain during bowel movements due to a tear or cut in the skin lining. Treatment options include proper care and medical intervention.


Anal fissures often occur due to trauma or injury to the sensitive skin around the anus. Common causes include:

  1. Constipation strains anal canal, causing fissures and affecting anal movements during bowel movements.
  2. Frequent diarrhea can irritate the anal area and cause fissure formation.
  3. Inadequate lubrication and care during anal intercourse can cause tears in the anal lining.
  4. Anal fissures may develop during childbirth due to pressure and canal stretching.
  5. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis increase anal fissure risk.


The primary symptom of an anal fissure is a sharp, intense pain during and after bowel movements. Other common symptoms include:

  1. Bleeding: Bright red blood may be visible on the surface of the stool or on the toilet paper after wiping.
  2. Itching and Irritation: The area around the anus may become itchy and irritated due to the tear.
  3. Muscle Spasms: Some individuals may experience spasms of the anal sphincter muscle, which can worsen the pain.
  4. Discomfort: A constant feeling of discomfort or a sensation of a “cut” in the anus may be present even when not passing stools.


Healthcare providers diagnose anal fissure through a physical examination, examining symptoms and medical history. Additional tests, like digital rectal exams or sigmoidoscopy, may be necessary to rule out other conditions like abscess or hemorrhoids.


Treatment for anal fissures aims to relieve pain, promote healing, and prevent recurrence. The following approaches are commonly used:

  1. Sitz baths, soaking anal area in warm water daily, reduce discomfort and promote healing.
  2. Stool softeners and fiber supplements reduce straining during bowel movements by softening stools.
  3. Topical medications like hydrocortisone or nitroglycerin may help relax anal sphincter and promote healing.
  4. Botox injections can relax muscles and facilitate healing in anal sphincter cases.
  5. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is a surgical procedure that partially cuts the anal sphincter muscle to reduce spasm and improve blood flow to the affected area, if conservative measures are ineffective.


While some risk factors for anal fissures may be unavoidable, certain lifestyle changes can help prevent their occurrence:

  1. Maintaining hydration improves stool quality and reduces constipation risk.
  2. A high-fiber diet promotes regular bowel movements through fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  3. Maintaining proper anal hygiene prevents irritation and infection.
  4. Safe anal intercourse involves adequate lubrication and caution to minimize injury to the anal canal.


  1. The pain is severe and persistent.
  2. Bleeding is significant or prolonged.
  3. The fissure does not heal with home remedies.
  4. There are signs of infection, such as fever or pus drainage.


Anal fissures are a treatable condition affecting the anal canal. Understanding their causes, symptoms, and treatment options helps individuals prevent them and seek appropriate medical care. With proper care and lifestyle adjustments, most fissures heal and provide relief from discomfort. Consult a healthcare provider for a thorough evaluation and personalized treatment plan if persistent or severe symptoms persist.


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